19 July 1943

19 July 1943



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19 July 1943

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War at Sea

German submarine U-513 sunk off San Francisco do Sul

Italy

USAAF bombers hit marshalling yards in Rome, bringing the war much closer to the Italian elite



USS Indianapolis torpedoed

On July 30, 1945, the USS Indianapolis is torpedoed by a Japanese submarine and sinks within minutes in shark-infested waters. Only 316 of the 1,196 men on board survived. However, the Indianapolis had already completed its major mission: the delivery of key components of the atomic bomb that would be dropped a week later at Hiroshima to Tinian Island in the South Pacific.

The Indianapolis made its delivery to Tinian Island on July 26, 1945. The mission was top secret and the ship’s crew was unaware of its cargo. After leaving Tinian, the Indianapolis sailed to the U.S. military’s Pacific headquarters at Guam and was given orders to meet the battleship USS Idaho at Leyte Gulf in the Philippines to prepare for the invasion of Japan.

Shortly after midnight on July 30, halfway between Guam and Leyte Gulf, a Japanese sub blasted the Indianapolis, sparking an explosion that split the ship and caused it to sink in approximately 12 minutes, with about 300 men trapped inside. Another 900 went into the water, where many died from drowning, shark attacks, dehydration or injuries from the explosion. Help did not arrive until four days later, on August 2, when an anti-submarine plane on routine patrol happened upon the men and radioed for assistance.

On August 6, 1945, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, inflicting nearly 130,000 casualties and destroying more than 60 percent of the city. On August 9, a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, where casualties were estimated at over 66,000. Meanwhile, the U.S. government kept quiet about the Indianapolis tragedy until August 15 in order to guarantee that the news would be overshadowed by President Harry Truman’s announcement that Japan had surrendered.

In the aftermath of the events involving the Indianapolis, the ship’s commander, Captain Charles McVay, was court-martialed in November 1945 for failing to sail a zigzag course that would have helped the ship to evade enemy submarines in the area. McVay, the only Navy captain court-martialed for losing a ship during the war, committed suicide in 1968. Many of his surviving crewmen believed the military had made him a scapegoat. In 2000, 55 years after the Indianapolis went down, Congress cleared McVay’s name.


Sweetwater Reporter (Sweetwater, Tex.), Vol. 46, No. 173, Ed. 1 Monday, July 19, 1943

Daily newspaper from Sweetwater, Texas that includes local, state and national news along with advertising.

Physical Description

six pages : ill. page 21 x 17 in. Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.

Creation Information

Creator: Unknown. July 19, 1943.

Context

This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Texas Digital Newspaper Program and was provided by the Sweetwater/Nolan County City-County Library to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 46 times. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this newspaper or its content.

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Check out our Resources for Educators Site! We've identified this newspaper as a primary source within our collections. Researchers, educators, and students may find this issue useful in their work.

Provided By

Sweetwater/Nolan County City-County Library

The Library was established in 1907 and seeks to provide a secure and dynamic environment for learning to the community with access to informational, recreational, and educational resources. Through a combination of technology and traditional library services, the Library aims to adequately serve all citizens of Nolan County.


What four coronaviruses from history can tell us about covid-19

IN 1889, a disease outbreak in central Asia went global, igniting a pandemic that burned into the following year. It caused fever and fatigue, and killed an estimated 1 million people. The disease is generally blamed on influenza, and was dubbed “Russian flu“. But with no tissue samples to check for the flu virus, there is no conclusive proof.

Another possibility is that this “flu” was actually a coronavirus pandemic. The finger has been pointed at a virus first isolated in the 1960s, though today it causes nothing more serious than a common cold. In fact, there are four coronaviruses responsible for an estimated 20 to 30 per cent of colds. Only recently have virologists begun to dig into these seemingly humdrum pathogens and what they have found suggests the viruses have a far more deadly past. Researchers now believe that all four of these viruses began to infect humans in the past few centuries and, when they did, they probably sparked pandemics.

The parallels with our current crisis are obvious. And it turns out that our growing knowledge about these other coronaviruses could be vital in meeting the challenge of covid-19. Insights into the origins, trajectories and features of common cold coronaviruses can provide crucial clues about what to expect in the coming months and years. Understanding these relatively benign viruses may also help us avoid another pandemic.

Coronaviruses are a big family of viruses that are mainly known for causing diseases in livestock. Until recently, few virologists paid them much attention. “Human coronaviruses were recognised in the 1960s,” says Frank Esper at the Cleveland Clinic in &hellip

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Did Mussolini visit the site of the first bombing of Rome on 19 July 1943?

Post by Sid Guttridge » 26 Feb 2019, 16:20

Did Mussolini visit the site of the first bombing of Rome on 19 July 1943?

I know the Pope and the King did, but did the Duce do so in the week before his overthrow?

Many thanks for any assistance,

Re: Did Mussolini visit the site of the first bombing of Rome on 19 July 1943?

Post by DrG » 27 Apr 2019, 19:32

Re: Did Mussolini visit the site of the first bombing of Rome on 19 July 1943?

Post by Sid Guttridge » 29 Apr 2019, 10:48

Re: Did Mussolini visit the site of the first bombing of Rome on 19 July 1943?

Post by Sid Guttridge » 30 Apr 2019, 11:11

It seems from Bianchi that Mussolini visited the San Lorenzo Yards on the afternoon of 25 July. It was probably his last official function before being arrested by the King.

Re: Did Mussolini visit the site of the first bombing of Rome on 19 July 1943?

Post by DrG » 14 May 2019, 21:12

The visit of 22 July 1943 is not very documented, but mentioned in several sources, this is the best available online: https://www.rerumromanarum.com/2016/07/ . el-19.html. I am sure I have read more about it elsewhere, but I can't remember where.

The visit on 25 July 1943 is instead a bit more known, because Mussolini himself described it in his "Storia di un anno. Il tempo del bastone e della carota", published in 1944 and reprinted in vol. 35 of Mussolini's "Opera omnia" edited by Duilio Susmel. I translate the relevant passage from page 355 of the aforementioned volume:
"At 2 p.m. the Duce, along with general Galbiati, went to visit the Tiburtino district, that had been particularly devasted by the terroristic attack of 19 July. The Duce was surrounded by the crowd of the victims and acclaimed. At 3 p.m. he returned to villa Torlonia."

Gen. Galbiati, chief of staff of the MVSN, wrote in his post-war memoirs "Il 25 luglio e la MVSN", Bernabò, 1950, that: "Not a word of curse from the crowd, but words of pity and also some words of faith." (the context is not clear, but almost certainly "faith" is about the faith in the Duce or Fascism, not in Christ) I found this passage in page 30 of the monthly "Storia Militare", feb. 2007.

Every other text mentioning this episode is based upon these two primary sources, I have never read more about it. De Felice devotes to this topic just a few passages, all clearly based on Mussolini's "Storia di un anno", for example.


19 July 1943 - History

On June 14, 1777, the Continental Congress passed an act establishing an official flag for the new nation. The resolution stated: “Resolved, that the flag of the United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new constellation.” On Aug. 3, 1949, President Harry S. Truman officially declared June 14 as Flag Day.

The history of our flag is as fascinating as that of the American Republic itself. It has survived battles, inspired songs and evolved in response to the growth of the country it represents. The following is a collection of interesting facts and customs about the American flag and how it is to be displayed:

Origins

  • The origin of the first American flag is unknown. Some historians believe it was designed by New Jersey Congressman Francis Hopkinson and sewn by Philadelphia seamstress Betsy Ross.
  • The name Old Glory was given to a large, 10-by-17-foot flag by its owner, William Driver, a sea captain from Massachusetts. Inspiring the common nickname for all American flags, Driver’s flag is said to have survived multiple attempts to deface it during the Civil War. Driver was able to fly the flag over the Tennessee Statehouse once the war ended. The flag is a primary artifact at the National Museum of American History and was last displayed in Tennessee by permission of the Smithsonian at an exhibition in 2006.

Old Glory
Photo Credit: Hugh Talman / NMAH, SI

  • Between 1777 and 1960 Congress passed several acts that changed the shape, design and arrangement of the flag and allowed stars and stripes to be added to reflect the admission of each new state.
  • Today the flag consists of 13 horizontal stripes, seven red alternating with six white. The stripes represent the original 13 Colonies and the stars represent the 50 states of the Union. The colors of the flag are symbolic as well red symbolizes hardiness and valor, white symbolizes purity and innocence, and blue represents vigilance, perseverance and justice.
  • The National Museum of American History has undertaken a long-term preservation project of the enormous 1814 garrison flag that survived the 25-hour shelling of Fort McHenry in Baltimore by British troops and inspired Francis Scott Key to compose “The Star-Spangled Banner.” Often referred to by that name, the flag had become soiled and weakened over time and was removed from the museum in December 1998. This preservation effort began in earnest in June 1999, and continues to this day. The flag is now stored at a 10-degree angle in a special low-oxygen, filtered light chamber and is periodically examined at a microscopic level to detect signs of decay or damage within its individual fibers.
  • There are a few locations where the U.S. flag is flown 24 hours a day, by either presidential proclamation or by law:

– Fort McHenry, National Monument and Historic Shrine, Baltimore, Maryland

– Flag House Square, Baltimore, Maryland

– United States Marine Corps Memorial (Iwo Jima), Arlington, Virginia

– On the Green of the Town of Lexington, Massachusetts

– The White House, Washington, D.C.

– United States customs ports of entry

– Grounds of the National Memorial Arch in Valley Forge State Park, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania


July 2014 updates

July 22 release

The following updates will be listed as “System Firmware Update – 7/22/2014” or “System Hardware Update – 7/22/2014” when you view your update history.

Note: When Surface updates are provided via the Windows Update service, they are delivered in stages to Surface customers. As a result, not every Surface will receive the update at the same time, but the update will be delivered to all devices. If you have not received the update, please manually check Windows Update later.

This update is available only for Surface 2 4G LTE:

Modem Firmware Update (v5.706.306.2) improves the reliability of the Surface 2 4G LTE on the AT&T 4G LTE network.

July 8 release

The following updates will be listed as “System Firmware Update – 7/8/2014” when you view your update history.

Note: When Surface updates are provided via the Windows Update service, they are delivered in stages to Surface customers. As a result, not every Surface will receive the update at the same time, but the update will be delivered to all devices. If you have not received the update, please manually check Windows Update later.

This update is available only for Surface 2 4G LTE:

Modem Firmware Update (v5.706.306.1) enhances the performance and reliability of the AT&T 4G LTE network on Surface 2 4G LTE.


Explore History

The Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. On July 1, 1944, as the battles of the Second World War raged in Europe and the Pacific, delegates from forty-four nations met at the secluded Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire to participate in what became known as the Bretton Woods Conference. Their purpose was to agree on a system of economic order and international cooperation that would help countries recover from the devastation of the war and foster long-term global growth. At its conclusion, the conference attendees produced the Articles of Agreement for the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

Bretton Woods Conference delegates including U.K delegate and Commission II leader Lord John Maynard Keynes (center). Years of planning and discussion preceded Bretton Woods and laid the foundation for the conference's success. While the final Articles were ultimately influenced to a significant degree by the initial plans of the United States with contributions from the United Kingdom, other countries attended consultations and presented proposals containing their own vision for an international bank prior to the conference.

The conference, formally known as the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, convened on July 1, 1944, and was attended by 730 delegates. U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau Jr. served as conference president. Lord John Maynard Keynes of the U.K. delegation led Commission II that dealt with the proposal for a bank for reconstruction and development. The commission's committees were tasked with studying the preliminary draft presented to the conference and gathering additional suggestions and proposals. Mexico, Chile, Brazil, Russia, Belgium, the Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Canada, China, and India were among the active participants. Much of the discussions centered around the proposed bank’s dual purposes of reconstruction and development and its capital structure.

Chairmen of the 44 country delegations at the Bretton Woods Conference. By July 22, 1944, the Final Act of the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, which included charters outlining the goals and mechanisms of both the IMF and IBRD, were signed by the delegates, although many decisions had yet to be made. The IBRD Articles of Agreement were ratified on December 27, 1945, when representatives from twenty-one countries convened in Washington, DC to become the Bank’s first members.

Imagine all of the paperwork, draft reports, notes, correspondence, and other records generated during the conference. Think of all this important documentary evidence. Where do all those archival sources live? Like the IMF, the World Bank did not technically exist during or even immediately after the conference and so did not have recordkeeping responsibilities. Country delegates may have taken the records back to their countries after the conference was over, and so it’s likely that archival records relating to Bretton Woods can be found in the custody of archival institutions in those forty-four countries. As host of the conference, the records held by the United States are particularly comprehensive. IMF Archives later become the repository for the records maintained by the conference secretariat. Records related to Bretton Woods in the holdings of the World Bank Group Archives were collected as the result of Bank units and staff collecting copies for the purpose of reference, and while not insignificant, are far from complete.

U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau addresses delegates. Records in our custody that relate to Bretton Woods include: early draft proposals by countries conference proceedings and working documents pamphlets government reports and drafts and commentary on the Articles leading up to the December 1945 ratification. There is also IBRD internal memoranda and annotated copies of the Articles regarding interpretation and amendments after the Bank began operations in 1946. These records are found in numerous fonds, or record groups, such as the Secretary’s Department, Office of the President, Central Files, and the personal papers of the Bank’s first Research Department Director, Leonard B. Rist. You will also find conference photographs collected by the Bank’s communications unit. Many of the textual records have been declassified and a portion of them have been digitized. Below you will find inventories containing folder lists those that have been digitized are hyperlinked.

We also invite you to explore other knowledge products produced by the Archives that relate to the Bretton Woods Conference. In 2019, the World Bank Group celebrated the 75th anniversary of the conference the Archives organized a variety of events that are documented here. The World Bank Historical Timeline, created by the Archives, has many events exploring Bretton Woods and the early years of the World Bank. Finally, the oral history interviews of former government officials involved in the preparatory work of Bretton Woods or who were delegates at the conference and later became Bank staff, including Irving S. Friedman, Aron Broches, Ansel F. Luxford, and Daniel Crena de Iongh, offer reflections on the events.


John B (for the Baptist) Stradford was born a free man in Versailles, Kentucky in 1861. His father, J.C. Stradford was a former slave who had been emancipated and was living in Stradford, Ontario (Canada) but who returned to the U.S. and was in Versailles &hellip Read More John “the Baptist” Stradford (1861-1935)

The Longview Race Riot occurred on July 10-12 in this northeast Texas city where 1,790 blacks comprised 31% of the town’s 5,700 people in 1919. Racial tensions were high across the United States due to race riots that began in March 1919. Just before the &hellip Read More Longview Race Riot, 1919


The Cap Arcona Tragedy – 7,000 Dead

The Allerona train disaster pales in comparison with the Cap Arcona incident, which has been called history’s deadliest case of friendly fire. The tragedy, which took place in the war’s final days (May 3, 1945), involved three ships in the harbour of Lubeck, Germany: the Thielbek, the SS Deutschland and the former luxury cruise liner Cap Arcona. Loaded with Allied POWs as well as more than 4,000 inmates from Nazi concentration camps, the luckless vessels were targeted by a flight of nine RAF Typhoons on an anti-shipping strike. [10] Allied intelligence believed the ships were carrying fugitive Nazis bound for Scandinavia when in reality, the Germans had loaded the ships with the prisoners and inmates and were reportedly planning on scuttling all three of the vessels, passengers and all. [11] As the British planes struck, the SS guards on board abandoned ship, but not before firing into crowds of panicking prisoners. Tugs and trawlers in the harbor managed to take 400 of the guards off the burning ships, but left the captives, many of whom leapt into the frigid water to escape the conflagration. Those survivors who didn’t either perish aboard the holed and sinking vessels or succumb to hypothermia, were repeatedly strafed by the Typhoons as they swam for safety. The British pilots later reported swooping low over the hapless fugitives firing into clusters of them as they bobbed in the water. Other prisoners were mercilessly cut down by SS guards as they neared the shore. The bodies of the victims choked the harbor and continued to wash ashore for weeks after the tragedy skeletal remains were still being recovered as late as the 1970s. [12] Subsequent investigations suggested that the Swedish government had passed along intelligence to the British indicating the ships were housing prisoners and death camp inmates, but that information was never communicated to mission planners. [13]

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Watch the video: 19 Ιουλίου 2021